Practical clinical guidance for common conditions and symptoms

Covering over 370 clinical topics for use in primary care, Clarity’s Diagnosis and Treatment Guidance supports confident decision-making at the point of care.

Referenced and linked to source evidence and covering over 1,200 clinical presentations or patient scenarios, this guidance helps healthcare professionals:

  • Reach a diagnosis
  • Prescribe safely
  • Offer safe and effective treatment options or referral for specialist care
  • Create local protocols and guidance

This resource is only available to customers outside of the UK.

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Clinical topics commissioned by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for use in the NHS

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Evidence-based and rigorous content development process

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Continually reviewed and updated, with new topics introduced regularly

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Easily accessible at the point of care

370 +

clinical topics

1,200 +

clinical presentations or patient scenarios

65 +

updates a year

Up to 10

new topics each year

Publication Updates

13 Apr
Clarity’s Diagnosis and Treatment Guidance April 2021 Update

This update contains 8 significant changes, 15 minor changes and 1 new topic.

Significant Changes:

• Obstructive sleep apnoea – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in January 2021 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic. The recommendations have been updated in line with current evidence in the literature. No major changes to the recommendations have been made.

• Gilbert’s syndrome – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in February 2021 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic. No major changes to the recommendations have been made, but the topic has been restructured.

• Immunization – childhood – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in January 2021 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic. No major changes to clinical recommendations have been made.

• Chlamydia – uncomplicated genital – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in February 2021 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic. No major changes to clinical recommendations have been made.

• Itch – widespread – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in December 2020 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic. In the Scenario on Management, the sections on management of itch of known and unknown cause have been merged to avoid repetition of text. The recommendations have been updated in line with current evidence in the literature. The recommendations on prescribing oral antihistamines have been amended to consider the use of non-sedating oral antihistamines first line unless there is a history of troublesome nocturnal itch. New sections on Cetirizine, Loratadine, and Fexofenadine have been added to the section on Prescribing information.

• Contraception – progestogen-only – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in February 2021 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic.

• Bruising – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in February 2021 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic. The topic has undergone restructuring. No major changes to the recommendations have been made.

• Earwax – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in March 2021 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic. No changes to clinical recommendations have been made, but the topic has been restructured.

Minor Changes:

• Epilepsy – minor update. Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs updated to contain information on severe liver damage in children.

• Coronavirus – COVID-19 – minor update. Information on the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine has been added to this topic, information relating to immunization in pregnancy has been updated, as well as prevalence data. A typographical error has also been corrected.

• Scrotal pain and swelling – minor update. A typographical error has been corrected.

• Eczema – atopic – minor update. Updated to align with Secondary bacterial infection of eczema and other common skin conditions: antimicrobial prescribing [NICE, 2021].

• Sinusitis – minor update. A link to a patient information leaflet has been removed from the topic.

• Insomnia – minor update. Information on the risks associated with melatonin have been clarified to align with the updated NICE Key therapeutic topic on Insomnia.

• HIV infection and AIDs – minor update. Recommendations on post-exposure prophylaxis have been updated in line with the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) UK Guideline for the use of HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis 2021.

• Pyelonephritis – acute – minor update. Information on signs and symptoms of acute pyelonephritis have been clarified.

• Immunizations – travel – minor update. Adverse effects of meningococcal meningitis vaccination updated in line with revised manufacturer’s SPC.

• Opioid dependence – minor update. Drug interactions for methadone updated in line with revised manufacturer’s SPC.

• Depression – minor update. Suicide/suicidal thoughts and aggression in patients during discontinuation of venlafaxine has been added in line with updated manufacturer’s SPC. A typographical error has also been corrected.

• Deep vein thrombosis – minor update. A typographical error has been corrected.

• Malaria prophylaxis – minor update. Suicidal behaviour and psychiatric disorders have been added to the adverse effects of chloroquine in line with updated manufacturer’s SPC.

• Contraception – emergency – minor update. The section on types of emergency contraception has been clarified. Links have been amended in the section on continuing or starting regular contraception.

• Contraception – IUS/IUD – minor update. The recommendations on switching from a progestogen-only implant to the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) have been updated in line with the Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) guideline Progestogen-only implant [FSRH, 2021].

New Topic:

• Platelets – abnormal counts and cancer – is a new topic. A literature search was conducted in January 2020 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials. The evidence base has been reviewed in detail and recommendations are clearly justified and transparently linked to the supporting evidence.

09 Mar
Clarity’s Diagnosis and Treatment Guidance March 2021 Update

This update contains 6 significant changes and 16 minor changes.

Significant Changes:
• Addison’s disease – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in November 2020 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic.

• Immunizations – travel – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in January 2021 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic. No major changes to clinical recommendations have been made.

• Insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in November 2020 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic. The topic has undergone minor restructuring to improve clarity and navigation. The recommendations have been updated in line with current literature.

• Multiple myeloma – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in December 2020 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic. There are no major changes to recommendations.

• Contraception – emergency – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in January 2021 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic.

• Contraception – IUS/IUD – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in January 2021 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic.

Minor Changes:
• Immunizations – pneumococcal – minor update. Information relating to routine pneumococcal immunization in children has been removed and a link to the topic Immunizations – childhood added.

• Bipolar disorder – minor update. Photosensitivity added as an adverse effect of lamotrigine in line with updated manufacturer’s SPC.

• Depression – minor update. SSRI drug interactions updated in line with manufacturer’s SPC for sertraline.

• Sleep disorders – shift work and jet lag – minor update. Revised licensing status for melatonin. Melatonin is now licensed for short-term use for the treatment of jet lag.

• Generalized anxiety disorder – minor update. Sertraline drug interactions updated in line with revised manufacturer’s SPC.

• Coronavirus – COVID-19 – minor update. A new guide to planning access to end-of-life care medicines during a pandemic has been included.

• Urological cancers – recognition and referral – minor update. Minor change to align with house style.

• Skin cancers – recognition and referral – minor update. Minor change to align with house style.

• Gynaecological cancers – recognition and referral – minor update. Minor change to align with house style.

• Childhood cancers – recognition and referral – minor update. Minor change to align with house style.

• Haematological cancers – recognition and referral – minor update. Minor change to align with house style.

• Gastrointestinal tract (lower) cancers – recognition and referral – minor update. Minor change to align with house style.

• Gastrointestinal tract (upper) cancers – recognition and referral – minor update. Minor change to align with house style.

• Head and neck cancers – recognition and referral – minor update. Minor change to align with house style.

• Lung and pleural cancers – recognition and referral – minor update. Minor change to align with house style.

• Brain and central nervous system cancers – recognition and referral – minor update. Minor change to align with house style.

09 Feb
Clarity’s Diagnosis and Treatment Guidance February 2021 Update

This update contains 7 significant changes, 24 minor changes and 1 new topic.

Significant Changes:
• Mastitis and breast abscess – reviewed. A literature search was conducted to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic. The topic has undergone restructuring. No major changes to the recommendations have been made.

• Jaundice in adults – reviewed. A literature search was conducted to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic. The topic has undergone restructuring. No major changes to the recommendations have been made.

• Jaundice in the newborn – reviewed. A literature search was conducted to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic. The topic has undergone restructuring. No major changes to the recommendations have been made.

• Squint in children – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in December 2020 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last version of this topic. No major changes to clinical recommendations have been made.

• Diabetes type 2 – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in November 2020 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of this topic. The topic has undergone minor restructuring to improve clarity and navigation. The recommendations have been updated in line with current literature. Information on the hyperglycaemic emergency complication of hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) has been added.

• Tennis elbow – reviewed. A literature search was conducted in November 2020 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic. There have been minor structural changes, and a recommendation not to use corticosteroids routinely for treating tennis elbow has been added to this topic.

• Anticoagulation – oral. A literature search was conducted in to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic. No major changes to clinical recommendations have been made. However, sections on monitoring people taking anticoagulants during the COVID-19 pandemic has been included, based on the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) Drug Safety Update Warfarin and other anticoagulants: monitoring of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic [MHRA, 2020].

Minor Changes:
• Immunizations – seasonal influenza – minor update. Information added to reflect the authorization of the use of the recombinant quadrivalent vaccine (QIVr) in the 2020/2021 immunization programme.

• Neuropathic pain – drug treatment – minor update. Severe respiratory depression added as an adverse effect of pregabalin in line with updated manufacturer’s SPC.

• Generalized anxiety disorder – minor update. Severe respiratory depression added as an adverse effect of pregabalin in line with updated manufacturer’s SPC.

• Sciatica (lumbar radiculopathy) – minor update. Recommendations on offering neuropathic drugs at follow-up, and advising people with sciatica when to seek follow-up have been clarified.

• Boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal carriage – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Bronchiectasis – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Cellulitis – acute – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Chest infections – adult – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Chlamydia – uncomplicated genital – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Cough – acute with chest signs in children – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Eczema – atopic – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Lacerations – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Leg ulcer – venous – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Olecranon bursitis – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Paronychia – acute – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Rosacea – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Sore throat – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Whitlow (staphylococcal and herpetic) – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Whooping cough – minor update. Contraindications and drug interactions for erythromycin have been updated in line with an MHRA drug safety update.

• Epilepsy – minor update. The safety profile of valproate in paediatrics has been updated in line with revised manufacturer’s SPC.

• Coronavirus – COVID-19 – minor update. Prevalence figures have been updated and information that a new more transmissible variant of COVID-19 emerged in December 2020 has been added to this topic, along with updated information on vaccine dose schedules.

• Contraception – combined hormonal methods – minor update. Recommendations on switching from the progestogen-only implant to combined hormonal contraception have been updated in line with the updated Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) guideline Switching or starting methods of contraception.

• Hyperthyroidism – minor update. Hypersensitivity reactions added as an adverse effect of propylthiouracil in line with updated manufacturer’s SPC.

• Diverticular disease – minor update. The duration of antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute diverticulitis has been updated in line with the NICE guideline Diverticular disease: diagnosis and management.

New Topic:
• Mental health in students – this is a new CKS topic. The evidence base has been reviewed in detail, and recommendations are clearly justified and transparently linked to the supporting evidence.